Flera av oss i projektgruppen har varit på den stora psykologikonferensen International Convention of Psychological Science i Paris för att presentera vår forskning.
Amanda presenterade postern Perception of Gender Equality Statements – The Moderating Effect of Gender Identification on Organisation Appeal. Ladda ner postern som pdf.
Hellen presenterade postern Swedish Gender-Neutral Pronoun Has No Gender Bias in Reading. Ladda ner postern som pdf.
Anna representerade gruppen i ett symposium med föreläsningen Gender-neutral
pronouns as promoters of gender equality and diversity, där hon dels presenterade resultaten från vår artikel i Sex Roles. Dessutom presenterade hon ny data som visar att ”han/hon” främst associeras med normativa kvinnor och män, medan ”hen” även associeras med personer som har ickenormativa könsuttryck.
Vår senaste forskningsartikel med titeln The (Not So) Changing Man: Dynamic Gender Stereotypes in Sweden har precis publicerats i tidskriften Frontiers in Psychology.
Abstract. According to Social Role Theory, gender stereotypes are dynamic constructs influenced by actual and perceived changes in what roles women and men occupy (Wood and Eagly, 2011). Sweden is ranked as one of the most egalitarian countries in the world, with a strong national equality discourse and a relatively high number of men engaging in traditionally communal roles such as parenting and domestic tasks. This would imply a perceived change toward higher communion among men. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of gender stereotype content in Sweden with a primary interest in the male stereotype and perceptions of gender equality. In Study 1, participants (N = 323) estimated descriptive stereotype content of women and men in Sweden in the past, present, or future. They also estimated gender distribution in occupations and domestic roles for each time-point. Results showed that the female stereotype increased in agentic traits from the past to the present, whereas the male stereotype showed no change in either agentic or communal traits. Furthermore, participants estimated no change in gender stereotypes for the future, and they overestimated how often women and men occupy gender non-traditional roles at present. In Study 2, we controlled for participants’ actual knowledge about role change by either describing women’s increased responsibilities on the job market, or men’s increased responsibility at home (or provided no description). Participants (N = 648) were randomized to the three different conditions. Overall, women were perceived to increase in agentic traits, and this change was mediated by perceptions of social role occupation. Men where not perceived to increase in communion but decreased in agency when change focused on women’s increased participation in the labor market. These results indicate that role change among women also influence perceptions of the male stereotype. Altogether, the results indicate that social roles might have stronger influence on perceptions of agency than perceptions of communion, and that communion could be harder to incorporate in the male stereotype.
Vår senaste forskningsartikel med titeln Reducing a Male Bias in Language? Establishing the Efficiency of Three Different Gender-Fair Language Strategies har precis publicerats i tidskriften Sex Roles. Ladda ner artikeln som pdf här.
Abstract. Different strategies of gender-fair language have been applied to reduce a male bias, which means the implicit belief that a word describing an undefined person describes a man. This male bias might be caused by the words themselves in terms of generic masculine or masculine forms or by androcentrism (the conflation of men with humanity). In two experiments, we tested how different gender-fair strategies used as labels of an unknown social target (an applicant in a recruitment situation) could eliminate the male bias. The three types of gender-fair strategies tested were: (a) paired forms (he/she), (b) traditional neutral words (e.g., singular they, “the applicant”), or (c) gender-neutral third-person pronouns actively created to challenge the binary gender system (ze, Swedish hen). The two experiments were performed in Swedish with 417 undergraduates in Sweden and in English with 411 U.S. participants recruited online. In Swedish, the third-person gender-neutral pronoun singular (hen) was used. In English, several forms of such gender-neutral pronouns have been suggested (e.g., ze). In both experiments, results indicated that paired forms and actively created gender-neutral pronouns eliminated the male bias, whereas traditional neutral words contained a male bias. Thus, gender-fair language strategies should avoid using traditional words. Consequences of using paired forms and creating new gender-neutral words are discussed. We argue that an actively created gender-neutral pronoun is of highest value because it is more inclusive.
Vår assistent Amanda har precis börjat som doktorand på institutionen för psykologi vid Lunds universitet. Amandas avhandling ligger inom ramen för vårt projekt och handlar om hur genusrättvist språk aktivt kan användas för att motverka diskriminering på arbetsmarknaden.
Vi är väldigt glada att Amanda kommer att jobba med oss i ytterligare fyra år, och fördjupa kunskapen om genusrättvist språk och dess effekter.
Läs mer om Amanda här.
Den 27-28 juni var Amanda på konferensen Future Sex i Surrey och presenterade resultaten från sin masteruppsats.
The Science of Gender Differences: Gender Essentialism as System Justification
Gender lay theory is a lay person theory which is used as a framework for interpreting information related to gender categorization. The present study investigated how individuals’ gender lay theory is affected by exposure to scientifically framed explanations for gender differences between women and men. It also investigated if gender essentialism functions as a system justifying mechanism by decreasing discrimination attribution, a situational rather than dispositional attribution, in response to a discriminatory situation. The 413 Swedish speaking participants were recruited from web forums and exposed to either a biologically focused (N = 133), or a social-constructivist focused (N = 125) scientifically framed text explaining gender differences, or not exposed to any text (N = 155). Compared to the control group, only exposure to social-constructivist gender discourse impacted gender lay theory by increasing endorsement of a gender as a socially constructed category. The group exposed to the biological text did not differ from the control group, indicating that an essentialist view of gender is the population norm. Discrimination attribution was indirectly affected by exposure to social-constructivist explanations for gender differences through gender lay theory, by increasing endorsement of a social gender lay theory which predicted a higher degree of discrimination attribution. These results point to a connection between exposure to scientific gender discourse, gender essentialism, and a situational attribution in response to a discriminatory situation. This study expands previous research in this field by showing that this connection also applies to an individual rather than general situation of gender discrimination.
Anna, Emma och Marie har varit på konferensen Gender Diversity in Survey Research i Göteborg, för att presentera våra tankar kring hur en kan/bör fråga om samt inkludera deltagarnas ”kön” i beteendevetenskaplig forskning. Vårt konferenspapper har titeln Measuring gender in surveys och kan laddas ner som pdf här.
Amanda, Hellen och Marie har varit på konferensen Context, Identity and Choice: Understanding the Constraints on Women’s Career Decisions i London för att presentera vår forskning.
Hellen presenterade studien Gender-neutral pronouns as promoters of gender equality in the work place.
Abstract: The gender-neutral pronoun ‘hen’, has been introduced in Swedish as an addition to the gendered pronouns ‘hon’ [she] and ‘han’ [he]. It can be used in a generic way to refer to someone when not knowing a person’s gender, when gender is irrelevant, or to refer to someone who does not identify with the binary categories.
Proponents of ‘hen’ have argued that the pronoun can reduce stereotyping in language. In previous research, ‘hen’ has been found to have no male bias when people try to determine whose job application they are reading. Reading a job application from ‘hen’, participants judged the person to be equally likely to be female or male in comparison with “the applicant” or “the candidate”, which were much more frequently imagined to be male (Bäck et al., 2015).
In this presentation, I present the first eye tracking data on how ‘hen’ affects the way we imagine others when reading about them, and discuss the implications this has for understanding how gender-neutral language may work as a gender-fair language strategy.
Amanda presenterade studien The (not so) Changing Man: Dynamic Gender Stereotypes in Sweden. Ladda ner postern som pdf här.
Anna och Emma kommenterar, tillsammans med tio andra forskare, Kvinnolobbyns invändning mot regeringens lagförslag för att underlätta transpersoners situation.
Texten är publicerad i Feministiskt perspektiv, och kan läsas här.
I början av mars besökte Helle och Marie Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Annual Convention i Atlanta för att presentera studien Gender-neutral pronouns increase reading time during anaphor resolution: Evidence from Swedish. Ladda ner postern som pdf här.
I dagarna har vi kommit ut med en forskningsrapport om hen. I rapporten beskrivs först hur språk och jämställdhet är relaterade till varandra och hur språk antas kunna påverka uppfattningar om kön. Vi beskriver också specifikt hur införandet av hen gick till, samt vilka faktorer som kan förklara attityder till samt användande av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen.
Ladda ner rapporten som [pdf]